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Şəffaf məlumat mərkəzi mexanizmi

Azərbaycanın Biomüxtəlifliyi

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Azərbaycan Respublikasında ekoloji siyasətin əsas istiqamətləri

Republic of Azerbaijan is a state with rich natural resources and developed industrial sectors. However, due to the fact that ecological issues have remained unresolved over a long period of time, the environment in the country is highly polluted. Currently, there are a number of ecological issues that await their resolution: pollution of water basins, including that of the Caspian Sea with waste water originated from domestic and industrial activities; damages incurred by changing level of the Caspian Sea; emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere at a level that exceeds acceptable norms; decreased biodiversity, erosion and salinization of land; and problems arisen from utilization of domestic and industrial waste and etc.

As it was mentioned during the international conference held in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1992 on UN's initiative, future development of the world will first of all, depend on the way ecological problems are resolved. Resolution of existing environmental problems in the world has seriously been considered during this conference. Furthermore, a number of important decisions, including the "Sustainable Development" concept were adopted during this conference, the latter having turned into a program document for all international environmental organizations. This concept highlights the harmonic relationship between economic development and ecological balance, enhanced efforts aimed at protection of the environment, urgent resolution of ecological issues, and improvement of the welfare of existing generations without limiting opportunities for future generations. In order to achieve this, increased economic efficiency and protection of the environment should be ensured.

As a continuation of the Rio Conference, the World Summit held in Johannesburg in 2002 provided further support for sustainable development principles and specifically highlighted measures for implementation of these principles.

Currently, existing situation in regards to the environment has obliged every country to place ecological problems at an international context. At present, issues related with protection of the environment is part of program documents of leading international organizations in the world.

The Republic of Azerbaijan has achieved quite considerable achievements in the area of social and economic development, which has been reflected in a number of national and international documents. Advancement and sustainability of achievements in social and economic sectors have been adopted as a main priority in the country. Ecological strategy of the country is aimed at preservation of natural resources at national, regional and international spheres; application of scientifically substantiated development principles; and sustainable use of economic and human resources of the country that would meet interests of existing and future generations through enhanced coordination of activities in the area of protection of the environment.

After achieving its independence and adoption of a market economy, the national environmental policy in regards to protection of the environment started to evolve with a new spirit in the Republic of Azerbaijan. This is also explained by espousal of ecological issues as a universal problem. As the first document in reference to national environmental policy during this period in Azerbaijan we would exemplify the “Environmental Concept of the Republic of Azerbaijan,” which was developed on the basis of “Sustainable Development” principles. This Concept reflects main guidelines for resolution of pressing issues in terms of protection of the environment.

The main objective of environmental policy implemented in the Republic of Azerbaijan is to ensure sustainable development through protection of available ecological systems and economic capacity and efficient use of natural resources in order to meet the needs of existing and future generations. In order to achieve this objective, efficient ways for utilization of natural resources should be developed and economic development should be ensured with sustainability in mind.

For sustainability of development from an ecological point of view, serious environmental issues that arise during economic activities should be resolved and negative affects of such issues on the environment should be minimized.

Considering the ecological situation that has evolved in the contemporary period and social-economic conditions, three main priorities of Azerbaijan’s environmental policies could be identified:

In consideration of ensuring environmental security, application of modern methods based on “Sustainable Development” principles in order to regulate protection of the environment and minimize pollution;
Efficient use of natural resources for meeting the needs of existing and future generations, benefiting from renewable energy sources through non-traditional methods and achieving energy efficiency;
Assessment of national requirements in regards to global environmental problems, identification of ways to resolve such problems, broadening of cooperation with international organizations, as well as ensuring implementation of environmental policies through utilization of national capacity.
The following tasks and principles should be used as a reference for achieving identified objectives in regards to the main priorities of environmental policies:

Use of modern methods in managing economic and human capacity for improvement of the quality of the environment;
Development and use of economic models and technologies that enable and stimulate improvement of welfare conditions of existing and future generations;
Ensuring fair welfare conditions for the same and different generations;
Preservation of natural conditions for ecosystems and biodiversity which would provide for maintenance of the humankind.
Principles:

Conducting decision-making processes with short and long term economic, ecological and social consequences and expected complications in mind and considering alternatives as part of this process;
Increased recruitment of the representatives of public and non-governmental organizations into decision-making processes that involve protection of the environment;
Prevention of activities that could cause irreparable violation of an environmental component;
Ensuring strong and diversified economic development that involves lesser amounts of waste;
Broadening of cooperation with international organizations and developed countries in the area of protection of the environment;
Increasing public’s awareness and promotion of the environment.
As a manifestation of environmental polices in the Republic of Azerbaijan, we could note the development of a relevant legislative basis in accordance with European standards, improvement of state environmental management system, and gradual realization of priority projects through broadened ties with international organizations.

Since social and economic processes have rapidly developed during the transition period in Azerbaijan, new methods and principles have also emerged in the country’s environmental policies. From this point of view, the National Program “On Environmentally sustainable social and economic development,” developed by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources and endorsed by the President of Azerbaijan, reflected further enhanced environmental policies and created additional opportunities for implementation of these policies.

Furthermore, augmented efforts aimed at promotion of the environment amount the public, increased amount of classroom time on issues related with protection of the environment and ecology in secondary schools are essential. A number of laws adopted by the Milli Mejlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan during the recent years on protection of the environment create immense opportunities for filling existing gaps in this area. The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources puts special emphasis on broadening ties with international organizations and donor countries for resolution of current problems. Hence, cooperation with UNDP, IAED, UNEP, NATO, OSCE, Global Foundation for the Environment, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Economic Cooperation Organization, World Bank, Asian Bank, World Wildlife Foundation and other organizations are continued. Further, bilateral ties are being made with developed countries based on relevant agreements. Joining international conventions in the area of protection of the environment is also an important priority for Azerbaijan. To this end, the Republic of Azerbaijan joined 20 conventions until now and signed relevant protocols.

Implementation of State Programs and projects for identifying resolution schemes for environmental issues and ensuring ecological balance will provide opportunities for gradual normalization of the environment in the near future as well.